Some English words about Chinese traditional culture(1)

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1.2 Confuciusand His Conception of Ren

Confucius 孔子

conception 观念、思想
acquaint 使熟悉、使了解

influential 具有影响力的
first name 名

family name 姓
alias 字

founder 缔造者
dynasty 朝代

property 财产
convince 说服

issue 事物
decline 没落

witness 见证
deterioration 衰落,恶化

doctrine 学说,教条
connotation 内涵

humanity 善良
benevolence 慈爱,仁

goodness 善行
the Analects 《论语》

disciple 弟子
Renism 仁学

Confucianism 儒学、儒家学派
be acquainted with 熟悉、了解

be caught up in 陷入…之中
the Zhou Dynasty 周朝

local warlord 地方军阀
restore order 恢复秩序

centraltheme 核心主题
viewpoints anddoctrines 思想学说

universal love 博爱、泛爱
fight one another over 为…而相互厮杀
moral and ethical ideas 道德伦理思想
the Spring and AutumnPeriod 春秋时期
witnessed the deteriorationof 见证…的衰落

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1.3 From Behavior Cultivation to Social Order

cultivation 教化
trunk 主干、核心

constitute 构建
connotation 内涵

intimate 亲切
superior 长者、上级

citizen 公民

social order 社会秩序
filial piety 孝悌

harmonious relationship 和谐关系
family reverence 孝悌

meet one’s expectation 不辜负某人的期望
thinkhighly of 重视

feel concern over something 为….感到担忧

摄影师四喜   96.4天前
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1.4 ConfucianThought on li

equivalent 对应词、对应物
rituals 礼仪

proprieties 礼节
variable 变量

classics 经典
context 环境

norm 标准
respectfulness 尊敬

prudence 谨慎
timidity 拘谨、害羞

boldness 勇敢
insubordination 不顺从、反抗

rudeness 粗暴
humble 谦逊

preserve 保持
stability 安定、稳定

piety 虔诚
courtesy 礼貌、谦恭

hierarchy 等级
commemoration 纪念

sage 圣人
worship 崇拜

be contrary to 与…..对立
conforms to 与……一致

a serious consequence 严重后果
thedeceased 逝者

the Book of Rites 《礼记》

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2.2
the United Nations

联合国

the Eight Trigrams

八卦

Oracle bone scripts 甲骨文

The Bronze Inscriptions 金文

Seal Script

篆书

the clericalscript

隶书

the regular script 楷书

cursive script 草书

historical event 历史事件

square-shaped 方块的

calligraphy 书法

pictographs

象形

self-explanatory character 指事

associative components 会意

picto-phonetic characters 形声

phoneticloan characters 假借

synonymous character 转注

radicals

偏旁部首

Simplified Chinese 简体

in mainland China 在中国大陆

Traditional Chinese 繁体

the 12 zodiac signs

十二生肖

the Wèi-Jìn periods 魏晋时期

aesthetic value

美学价值

horizontal stroke 横

vertical stroke

horizontal hook 横钩 竖

left falling stroke

vertical stroke with a hook 钩

right falling stroke

upward stroke 提

horizontalturning 横折

vertical turning 竖折

verticalhook 竖钩

curved hook 弯钩

radicals 偏旁部首

horizontal stroke with avertical turn

horizontal &left-falling stroke

横撇

in the Warring States Period 在战国时期

Left-falling stroke andturning

撇折

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3.2 Literal meaning

UNESCO World Heritage List 联合国教科文组织世界遗产名录

Chinese Palatial Architecture 中国宫廷建筑

ancient architectural hierarchy 古代建筑等

traditional Chinese astrology 中国传统星相学

the architectural perspective 建筑视角

the Ziwei Star

紫微星

the surrounding region 相邻区域

the Ziwei Enclosure 紫薇垣

construction techniques 建造技术

the Forbidden City 紫禁城

the architectural layout 建筑形制

architectural art 建筑艺术

the cultural connotations 文化内涵

the North Star 北极星

the earthly counterpart 在大地上对应物 the Jade Emperor 玉皇大帝

the terrestrial emperor 地上皇帝

the celestial emperor 天上皇帝

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3.3

The Architectural Layout: Two Courts

the Three Rear Palaces 后三宫

the Inner Court 内廷

the Six Eastern Palaces 东六宫

theBack Palace 后宫

the Six Western Palaces 西六宫

the Outer Court 外朝

3.4 The Architectural Layout and the TraditionalRituals

the official court in the front and the residentialcourt in the rear

前朝后寝

(The trigrams for) heaven and earth in communicationtogether form harmony

天地交,泰

carvings on the outer wall and porcelain tiles on theinner wall

外墙有石雕内墙为瓷瓦

a series of 18 paintings of scenes fromThe Dream of Red Mansions on the walls

一系列在墙上的《红楼梦》18景

the Meridian Gate is the main entrance to the ForbiddenCity from the south

午门是紫禁城南边的主要入口

the ritual of the ancestral shrines on the left andaltar of Gods of Land and Grain on the right

左祖右社

perform the national soil and grainceremonies

用于祭奠土地和谷物的仪式

the very foundation of traditional Chinese agriculturalsociety

中国传统农业社会的根基

a residence for some important imperial concubines重要妃嫔的住所

the God of Land is known as She in Chinese 中文里土地神称作社

a signboard inscribed with “Justice and Honour” “正大光明” 牌匾

the Yin and Yangmixed to produce harmony 阴阳聚合产生和谐

the idea of the union of human being and the nature 天人合一

the residence of empresses and concubines 皇后和妃嫔们的居所

in honour of the imperial family’sancestors 皇室家族的先祖们

The Rites of Zhou · Records ofConstruction 《周礼·考工记》

achieve symmetry of the Forbidden City 产生了对称的效果

receive respects from imperial concubines 接受妃嫔们的朝贺

a three-decked western building 一座有三层平顶的西式建筑

the residence of consorts and concubines 妃嫔们的住所

a central axis of the Forbidden City 紫禁城的中轴线

the Imperial Ancestral Temple on the left 左有太庙

the Altar of Land and Grain on the right

右有社稷坛

hanging high above the throne 高悬于皇帝御座之上

the enthronement of the new emperor 新帝登基

the court examination 殿试(科举考试的最后一轮考试)

a chandelier-like set of metalballs 枝形吊灯式金属球

The Meridian Gate has fivegateways. 午门有五个门洞。

the result of imperial examinations 科举考试皇榜

in parallel with the central axis

中轴线平行

hear imperial proclamations 聆听皇帝的圣旨

the majesty of the emperor 至高无上的皇权

three ceremonial Halls 三大用于盛典的宫殿

the God of Grain is known as Ji 谷神称为稷

the minority group leaders 少数民族首领

the symmetrical counterparts 对应建筑

the majestic ceremonial avenue 御道

dispatch generals to war 派遣将军出战

entitle the empress dowager 加封太后

the residence of the Empress 皇后的居所

the residence of the emperors 皇帝居所

the Palace of Prolonging Happiness 延禧宫

and the Hall of Supreme Principle 太极殿

the Palace of Universal Happiness 咸福宫

the Palace of Accumulated Purity 钟粹宫

the Palace of Gathered Elegance 储秀宫

the Palace of Great Benevolence 景仁宫

the Palace of Earthly Tranquility 坤宁宫

the Palace of Eternal Longevity 永寿宫

the Hall of Preserving Harmony 保和殿

the Hall of Supreme Harmony

太和殿

the Palace of Eternal Harmony 永和宫

the Hall of Mental Cultivation 养心殿

the Hall of Middle Harmony

中和殿

the Palace of Celestial Favour 承乾宫

the Palace of Great Brilliance 景阳宫

the Palace of Earthly Honour 翊坤宫

the Palace of Heavenly Purity乾清宫

the Palace of Eternal Spring 长春宫

The Legend of Zhen Huan 《甄嬛传》

the imperial monastery 皇家寺院

Shamanist worship 萨满教祭祀

the Imperial Examination 科举考试

two-layered glass walls

两层玻璃墙

an intricate caisson

精美的藻井

metalframework 金属框架结构

white marble stones 白色大理石

the central gateway 中间的正门

sacrificial ceremonies 牺牲典礼

TheBook of Changes 《易经》

imperial wedding

皇帝大婚

the state ceremonies 国家庆典

a building complex

建筑综合体

The Book of Change 《易经》

a traditional ritual 一个传统礼制

imperial audiences 朝会

a coiled dragon 盘龙

the Xuanyuan Mirror

轩辕镜

ceremonial centre 庆典中心

theEmpress Dowager 太后

the feudal ritual 封建礼制

The Rites of Zhou 《周礼》

the Hall of Union 交泰殿

observed mourning 守孝

Tian’anmen Gate 天安门

the Meridian Gate 午门

Duan Men Gate

端门

the rear hall

后厅

cold palace 冷宫

imperial power

帝国权利

give banquets 大宴

crown prince 太子

摄影师四喜   96.3天前
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3.5 TheMythological Animals on the Eaves
the ten mythological animals in order of Chi Wen,Phoenix, Lion, Heavenly Horse, Sea Horse, Suan Ni, Ya Yu, Xie Zhi, Dou Niu andHang Shi

十个脊兽排序是:螭吻,凤,狮,天马,海马,狻猊,犽鱼,獬豸,斗牛,行十

the number of the mythologicalanimals of any other buildings is odd.

其它建筑的神兽数目是奇数。

a unicorn, who stands for justiceand uprightness

独角兽,代表正义和正直

the White House in Washington D.C 华盛顿哥伦比亚特区的白宫

the Versaille Palace in Paris, France 法国巴黎的凡尔赛宫

the Buckingham Palace in London 伦敦的白金汉宫

Top Five Grand Palaces of World 世界五大宫殿

the Kremlin Palace in Moscow 克里姆林宫

the Russian Federation 俄罗斯联邦

constructed with the grandestterrace 建造着最宏大的台基

prevent the destruction bythunder 阻止雷击造成的损害

an immortal riding an animal

一个骑着动物的仙人

the social status of theinhabitants 居住者社会地位

mythological animal on theeaves 建筑的脊兽数目

width plus depth of a building 建筑的面阔与进深

indicates the power of the owner 彰显屋主的力量

bring happiness and good luck 带来幸福和好运

the bull-like fighting dragon

像牛一样的战龙

collect clouds and extinguishes fire 积云灭火

the hierarchy isself-evident 等级是不言而喻的

travel thousands of miles in a day日行千里

any violation of the rules 任何规定的违反

rank them precisely

给它们精确地排序

the lion-like dragon 像狮子一样的龙

watch fire 察火

architectural ranking 建筑等级

a headof a beast 一个兽头

layer of terrace 台基的层级

rank tenth 排行第十

run like the wind 风驰电掣

havecontrol over water 控水

the fishdragon 像鱼一样的龙

fight forpeace 为和平而战

strict specification严格的规定

the flying monkey 飞翔的猴子

4.2

Roof Styles

Two hip-and-gable roofs intersect and constitute a crossridge.

两个歇山顶相交构成了一个十字脊。

ceremoniesof “accepting” prisoners of war

接受向皇帝敬献战俘的献俘礼

three layers of eaves 三层屋檐

9beams 九道梁

72 ridges on the roof 七十二脊

18 pillars 十八根柱子

a mission impossible 不可能完成的任务

petty officials 小官员

royalfamily members 宗室王

a case in point 典型案例

celebrationsof victories 胜利的庆典

socialhierarchy 社会等级

roofing system 屋顶系统

eaves 屋檐

ridge 正脊

hip 垂脊

gable 山墙

flush gable roof 硬山顶

Single-eaved roof 单檐屋顶

double-eaved roof 重檐屋顶

hip roof 庑殿顶

hip-and-gableroof 歇山顶

overhanging gable roof 悬山顶

pyramidal roof

攒尖顶

covered-bucketroof

盝顶

paraboloid roof 卷棚顶

four-sided pyramidal roof 四角攒尖顶

double-eaved hip roof 重檐庑殿顶

double-eaved hip-and-gable roof 重檐歇山顶

double-eaved pyramidal roof 重檐攒尖顶

single-eaved hip roof 单檐庑殿顶

single-eaved hip-and-gable roof 单檐歇山顶

single-eaved pyramidal roof 单檐攒尖顶

Zhudi, the Yongle Emperor 永乐皇帝朱棣

the chief project commander 项目总管

determine their ranking 决定它们的排序

Lu Ban, the Father of the Builders 建筑之父鲁班

Another problem stillarises. 另一个问题又产生了。

announcementof the new calendar 颁发次年历书

a gilded spire in the centre 一个镀金的塔尖居于中央

Lu Ban, the Fatherof the Builders 木匠的祖师爷鲁班

The meridianGate has five openings. 午门有五个门洞。

High-rankingcivil and military officials 高级别的文武大臣

摄影师四喜   96.3天前
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4.3 Width and Depth

give up the throne 退位

the imperial throne

帝王之位

the Revolution of 1911 辛亥革命

the emperor’s majesty 皇帝的至高无上

the "presencemeeting" and 御前会议

great transformation 翻天覆地的巨变

the emperors’ private life 皇帝的私生活

the emperors’ official fulfillment 皇帝的公务

equality with the commoners 与平民百姓一样的平等

The Book of Rites ·The Questions of Duke Ai 《礼记·哀公问礼》

The width and depth of thebuildings was measured by bay.

建筑的面阔和进深是用“间”来衡量的。

The Hall of Supreme Harmony iseleven bays wide and five bays deep.

太和殿面阔十一间,进深五间。

The Hall of Preserving Harmonyof the Outer Court and the Palace of Heavenly Purity and the Palace of EarthlyTranquility of the Inner Court are nine bays wide and five bays deep.

外朝的保和殿和内廷的乾清宫和坤宁宫均是面阔九间进深五间。

nine-bay-wide-and-five-bay-deeplayout

面阔九间进深五间的形制

the three-bay-wide andthree-bay-deep Hall of Mental Cultivation with single-eaved hip-and-gable roof

面阔三间进深三间单檐歇山顶的养心殿

The Empress Dowagers Cixi andCi’an took charge of the state affairs behind a screen.

慈禧太后和慈安太后垂帘听政。

The Hall of Mental Cultivationexperienced the ups and downs of Qing Dynasty.

养心殿经历了清朝的起起落落。

“Without rites, the distinctions between monarch andsubject, between senior and junior, between elder and younger cannot be clearlydrawn.” Here is a comment from

“非礼,无以辨君臣上下长幼之位也”.

4.4 Eight Trigrams

The Three Rear Palaces arethree unbroken lines.

后三宫是三条不断开的线。

Six Eastern Palaces are threebroken lines.

而东六宫是三条断开的线。

Six Western Palaces are stillbroken lines.

西六宫也是三条断开的线。

Eight Trigrams are a rangeof eight interrelated concepts in Taoist theory to represent the basicprinciples of reality.

八卦是道教里用八个相互关联概念的排列组合来体现现实的基本原则。

Eachtrigram with three lines, each line either "broken" or"unbroken," representing Yin or Yang, respectively.

每卦由三条线组成每条线或断或连,各自代表阴或者阳。

Both the Three Rear Palaces of the Inner Court and thethree great halls of the Outer Court are arranged in Qian Trigram (☰), representing yang.

无论是内廷后三宫还是外朝三大殿都是乾卦的卦象,代表阳。

Thebroken line represents yin while the unbroken line represents yang.

断开的线代表阴而不断开的线代表阳。

With three unbroken lines, theThree Rear Palaces take the shape of Qian Trigram (☰), representing yang.

后三宫是三条不断开的线, 所以它们是乾卦之形,代表阳。

With three broken lines, the SixEastern Palaces and the Six Western Palaces take the shape of Kun Trigram (☷), representing yin.

东六宫和西六宫是三条断开的线所以是坤卦之形,代表阴。

Qian Trigram stands for the heaven and Kun Trigram forthe earth.

乾卦代表天而坤卦代表地。

the three halls of the Outer Court is mirrored by theThree Rear Palaces of the Inner Court.

外朝三大殿被内廷后三宫仿建。

There is a harmony of the heaven, the earth and people,and a harmony of yin and yang.

天地人和谐,并且阴阳和合。

The Three Rear Palaces are arrangedin Qian Trigram while the Six Eastern Palaces and the Six Western Palaces arearranged in Kun Trigram.

后三宫按照乾卦排列而东六宫和西六宫按照坤卦排列。

dragon as a cultural symbol 作为文化符号的龙

their earthly projection 它们在大地上的投影

Chinese architectural wisdom 中国建筑智慧

in a broader sense 从更广义的角度来看

in anauspicious manner

以吉祥的方式

from cultural perspective 从文化视角

Fuxi Eight Trigrams 伏羲八卦

orientbuildings

定位建筑物

a shape of Trigrams 卦相的形状

Eight Trigrams 八卦

Five Elements 五行

QianTrigram (☰) stands for heaven

乾卦(☰)代表天,

Dui Trigram (☱) for lake

兑卦(☱)代表泽,

Li Trigram (☲) for fire

离卦(☲)代表火,

Zhen Trigram (☳) for thunder

震卦(☳)代表雷,

Xun Trigram (☴) for wind

巽卦(☴)代表风,

Kan Trigram (☵) for water

坎卦(☵)代表水,

Gen Trigram (☶) for mountain

艮卦(☶)代表山,

Kun Trigram (☷) for earth

坤卦(☷)代表地。

摄影师四喜   96.3天前
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