Some English words about Chinese traditional culture(2)

摄影师四喜      167阅读

4.5 Five Elements

Five Elements are also pertinent to nature. 五行也与自然息息相关。

the emperors’ hope of national stability 皇帝的希望——国泰民安

Yellow correspond with earth. 黄色对应土。

Five Elements are metal, wood, water, fire and earth.

五行是金,木,水,火和土。

The imperial colours in the Forbidden City are yellow,red, green, white and black.

紫禁城的皇家色彩有黄色,红色,绿色,白色和黑色。

Metal corresponds with white, wood corresponds withgreen,and water isrelated to black, fire is associated with red, and earth is linked to yellow.

金配白色,木配绿色,水配黑色,火配红色,土配黄色。

The three-terraced marble of the three halls are white.

三大殿的三层大理石台基是白色的。

The Crown Prince's residences havegreen tiles because green was associated with wood, and thus growth.

皇太子的住宅有绿瓦因为绿色对应木,表示成长。

Black is associated with water, sothe library at the Pavilion of Literary Profundity had black tiles.

黑色对应水,因此文渊阁里的皇家图书馆有黑瓦。

Red, corresponding with fire, symbolises good fortuneand joy.

红色,对应火,象征好运和快乐。

Yellow generates Yin and Yang,which implies that yellow is the centerof everything.

黄色产生阴阳,这暗示黄色是万物之中心。

As the three halls of the Outer Court symbolised thesupreme imperial sovereignty, they erected above a 土-shaped terrace.

由于外朝三大殿象征至高无上的皇权,所以它们被建在一个土字形台基上。

Wood is east, fire is south, metal is west, water isnorth and earth is centre.

木在东方,火在南方,金在西方,水在北方而土居中央。

4.6 Yin and yang

The Limitless (Wuji) producesthe delimited,

and this is the supreme ultimate (Taiji)
The Taiji produces two forms, (namedyin and yang)

The two forms produce fourphenomena,(named lesser yin, great yin, lesser yang, great yang.)

The four phenomena act on theEight Trigrams (bagua).

无极生有极

有极生太极

太极生两仪(即阴和阳)

两仪生四象, (即少阴,太阴,少阳,太阳。)

四象生八卦。

Yin and yang can transform into each other. 阴阳可以相互转变。

The south is yang while the north is yin. 南为阳北为阴。

Actually both Eight trigrams and Five Elements derivefrom yin and yang.

事实上无论是八卦还是五行都源于阴阳。

The odd number is yang while the even number is yin.

奇数为阳而偶数为阴。

The Outer Court in the south is yang while the InnerCourt in the north is yin.

外朝为阳内廷为阴。

Lesser yin means there is yang in the yin domain.

少阴是阴域里有阳。

The Palace of Earthly Tranquility can be viewed as greatyin.

坤宁宫可以看成太阴。

The transition between great yin and lesser yin is theHall of Union while that between great yang and lesser yang is the Hall ofMiddle Harmony.

太阴和少阴之间的过度是交泰殿而太阳和少阳之间的过度是中和殿。

All these interpretations lead to the icon of Taiji.

这些解释符合太极图形的表述。

Great yang the Hall of Supreme Harmony is at the top ofthe white area and the black eye in the white area is lesser yin, the Hall ofPreserving Harmony.

太阳太和殿在白色区域的顶部而白色区域的黑色鱼眼是少阴,即保和殿。

The white eye in the black area is lesser yang, thePalace of Heavenly Purity and the Palace of Earthly Tranquility is great yin atthe end of the black area.

那么黑色区域的白色鱼眼是少阳即乾清宫那么坤宁宫就是太阴,居于黑色区域的底部。

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4.7

ChineseArchitectural Wisdom

the building materials 建筑材料

intricate design 精心的巧思

the monsoon rains 季风雨

weather conditions 天气条件

manufacturing cycle 制作周期

special maintenance 特殊保养

the largest wooden complex inthe world 世界上最大的木建筑综合体

a commoner from the Department of Construction 一个工部的平民

one brick, one liang (50g) of gold. 一块砖头,一两(50克)金子。

reconstruction of the Hall ofSupreme Harmony 重建太和殿

the logging and transporting ofNanmu 采伐和运输楠木

the manufacturing of golden bricks 制造金砖

mops soaked in kerosene 浸在煤油里的抹布

incredible durability 令人难以置信的持久性

architectural state of the art

最高建筑技艺

the transporting of a 300-tonsingle marble slab

运输一块重达300吨的整块大理石

Each trigram corresponds to anaspect of life and nature.

每卦对应生命和自然的一个方面。

4.8

Dragon as a cultural symbol

All things submit to yin and embrace yangand Yin and yangtransform each other.

万物负阴抱阳而且阴阳之间相互转换。

The three halls of the Outer Courtand the Three Rear Palaces can interpret the transformation of yin and yang infour forms

-–great yin, lesser yin, lesseryang and great yang.

外朝三大殿和后三宫诠释了阴阳四象之间的变换

——太阴,少阴,少阳和太阳。

transformation of the existing soft property of theearth into hard enduring golden bricks

将泥土已有的软性转性成坚硬耐用的金砖

screen walls

影壁

the land of dragon 龙的土地

a mythical creature 神兽

imperial architecture 皇室建筑

the descendants of dragon 龙的传人

the Palace of Tranquil Longevity 宁寿宫

the soul of Chinese Nation

中华民族的灵魂

a glazed-tile Nine Dragons Screen 琉璃九龙壁

Five Elements correlate to nature,too. 五行也与自然关联。

divine powers to summon wind and rain 呼风唤雨的神力

an emblem reserved for the imperial regime 皇室政权的徽章

the cultural journey to the Forbidden City

紫禁城的文化之旅

Dragons are varied in the Forbidden City. 在紫禁城里龙是千变万化的。

摄影师四喜   142.8天前
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5.2

Originof Cheongsam

Horse Hoof Cuff 马蹄袖

body-hugging 修身的

one-piece 衣裳连属的、一件的

theEight Banners 八旗

tight-fitting

紧身的

straight gown 直襟的长袍

triangular front piece 三角形前襟

Manchu 满族

loose-fitting 宽松的,松身式的

theEight Banners 八旗

the Banner People

旗人

the nomadic people 游牧民族

round collar

圆领

narrowsleeves 窄袖

slits of the four sides 四面开衩

riding and shooting 骑射

“flowerpot sole” “花盆底”

“horse hoof sole” “马蹄底”

“reversed large sleeves” “倒大袖”

“double horns hair style” “两把头”

the great order of heaven and earth 天地秩序

the upper and lower garments 上衣下裳的着装形制

garments, food, shelter, and means of travel

衣食住行

one straight piece covering the whole body

宽身直筒

Hair Shaving and Costumes Change Policy 剃发易服

one-piece gown-style garments

上下连属的一件制服式

cultural interaction between the Manchu and Han people 满汉交融

5.3

Evolutionof Cheongsam

the “going up to mountain and down to countryside”movement “上山下乡”运动

oriental elegance, tranquility, and mystery东方的典雅、纯朴与神秘

the beauty of the curvy body shape 身体的曲线美

the charm of the oriental women 东方女性的魅力

in the years at the turn of the century 世纪之交

Reform and Opening Door Policy 改革开放政策

the commodity economy times 商品经济时代

Western Feminist Movement 西方女权主义运动

very popular in the whole China 风靡全中国

the scum of the old society 旧社会的残渣

blue cotton cloth cheongsam 蓝布旗袍

unique oriental charm 独特的东方魅力

bourgeois life style 资产阶级生活方式

People’s Republic of China 中华民国

New Culture Movement 新文化运动

the curve of female figure 身材曲线

New Culture Movement 新文化运动

Feminist Movement 女权运动

jacquard woven brocade 提花锦缎

feudalist dynasty 封建王朝

be given a cold shoulder 遭冷遇

army style 军便服

commodity economy 商品经济

woolencloth 呢绒

the award ceremony 颁奖典礼

stand-up collar 立领

Cultural Revolution 文化大革命

coiled button 盘扣

stylish cheongsam 时尚旗袍

Lenin Jacket 列宁装

workers’ uniform 工装服

Lenin jacket 列宁装

golden ages

全盛阶段

set aside 搁置一旁

take the lead to 率先

silk 丝绸

Rescinded 废除;撤销;停止;废止

linen 麻

Shackle 束缚;羁绊;枷锁

Camlet 羽纱

Rage 流行,风行

cotton 棉布

摄影师四喜   142.8天前
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5.4

Design of Cheongsam and Its CulturalConnotation and Aesthetic Thoughts

the interaction between the Manchu and Han cultures 满汉文化的交融

the combination of Chinese and western fashions 中西时尚的合璧

highly esteem the right and think lowly of the left 尊右卑左

restraining oneself and following the etiquette 克己复礼

an indispensable fashion element 不容忽视的时尚元素

Zhi (meaning “sewing”) “黹”or Zhenzhi (“针黹”)

be made accurately to the measurement 量体裁衣

the curve of the female body 女性的身材曲线

the Confucian Book of Rites 孔子《礼记》

the Instruction Books for Women 《女诫》

Oriental sense of moderation 中庸之美

Oriental sense of moderation 中庸之道

Yue Embroidery from Guangdong 粤绣

“Shou”character-shaped button 寿字扣

chrysanthemum-shaped button 菊花扣

Xiang Embroidery from Hunan 湘绣

Shu Embroidery from Sichuan 蜀绣

Su Embroidery from Suzhou 苏绣

the open front-piece style 开襟形式

water drop-shaped collar 水滴领

elegancy and delicacy 优雅细致

butterfly-shaped button 蝴蝶扣

frog/coiled button 盘扣/盘纽

everlasting fashion 永驻时尚

pipa-shaped button 琵琶扣

be well received 广受欢迎

shoe-shaped collar 元宝领

wave-shaped collar 波浪领

V-shaped collar V字领

not revealing 衣不露体

unique designs 独特设计

aestheticvalues 美学价值

jacquard fabric 提花织物

auspiciouscloud 祥云

originate from 脱胎于

the front piece 前襟

stand-up collar 立领

plumblossom 梅花

“Ruyi” button 如意扣

woolen cloth 呢绒

collar band 领头

needlework 女红;针绣

exquisite 精美的;精致的

refined 考究的;精致的

sleeves 衣袖

removal 废除;去除

infinitely 极其

shoulder 肩

embedding 嵌条

coiling 盘扣

embroidering 刺绣

chrysanthemum 菊花

embroidery 刺绣

camlet 羽纱

incorporate 融合

absorb 吸收

orchid 兰花

pattern 纹样

peony 牡丹花

brocade 锦缎

lacing 镶边

edging 滚边

chest 胸

waist 腰

hip 臀

hem 衣摆

asymmetrical 非对称的,不对称的

decency 合宜;得体;正派;合乎礼仪

meticulously 精心细致地;一丝不苟地;注意细节地

摄影师四喜   142.8天前
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6.2

History of Chinese Paper Cutting

precious gems of Chinese traditional culture 中国传统文化的无价瑰宝

people of different economic status 来自于各个经济阶层的老百姓

handed down from generation to generation 代代相传

Anecdotes about Spirits andImmortals 《搜神记》

summon spirits and calm the nerves 招魂压惊

Reform and Opening Door policy 改革开放政策

modern interior design 室内装潢设计

a decorative device 一种装饰艺术手段

artistic features 艺术特色

Chinese folk arts 中国民间艺术

cultural values 艺术价值

“Gold-silver Ping Tuo” “金银平脱”

credit 认为

domestic decoration家居装饰

archaeological 考古的

“Jin State Shoes” “晋国鞋”

gold foil 金箔

unearth出土

necromancer 方士

silhouette轮廓

lacquerware 漆器

bronze mirrors 铜镜

pattern 纹样

excavate 发掘,挖掘(古物等)

adorn 装饰

papermaking industry 造纸业

prevail 盛行

hadow puppetry 皮影戏

porcelain瓷器

heyday 鼎盛时期

chronicles编年史

pray for a fine day 祈晴

textile dyeing 纺织品印染

in its own right 本身,自身

trademarks 商标设计

UNESCO 联合国教科文组织

stamp design邮票设计

fashion design 时装设计

book binding书籍装帧

with the advent of随着……到来

cartoon books卡通画册

"masterpiece of oral and intangible heritage ofhumanity"

“人类口述和非物质遗产代表作”

“Carving Sheng on Gold Foil, Cutting out Human Figureson Silk”

“镂金作胜,剪彩为人”

the thorough and systematic transcripts about

关于……详尽而系统的介绍

摄影师四喜   142.8天前
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6.3

Artistic Features of Chinese Paper Cutting

the most participated among the common people 最为广泛的群众性

unique historical and geographical conditions 独特的历史和地理条件

“baby with coiledhair on lotus bearing seeds” “蓬里生子”

Wuqiang Woodblock New Year Painting 武强木板水印年画

primitive and farming culture 原始文化和农耕文化

“Double fish with human faces” “双鱼人面”图案

ghosts, evil spirits, demons and monsters 魑魅魍魉

The Romance of the Three Kingdoms 《三国演义》

“paired fish baby with coiled hair” “双鱼娃娃”

distinct geographic features 鲜明的地域特征

drive away ghosts and evil spirits 挡鬼辟邪

Yangliuqing New Year Painting

杨柳青年画

Dream of the Red Chamber 《红楼梦》

“fairies from five paths” “五道娃娃”

“baby with coiled hair” “抓髻娃娃”

sweep away the clouds 扫云止雨“

spirit callingbaby” “招魂娃娃”

“lotus flower baby” “莲花娃娃”

call back human spirit 招人魂灵

multi-ethnic population

民族众多“ pomegranatebaby” “石榴娃娃”

true-to-life depictions 逼真的描绘

profoundconnotations 丰富的内涵

unique charm 独特魅力

exact lines 精致的线条

vast territory 地域辽阔

ingenious patterns 巧妙的图案

Yuxian paper cutting 蔚县剪纸

“windowflower” “窗花”

vivid figures

栩栩如生的人物

vigorousin style 风格苍劲

eternity of life 人类的永生

lawsof nature 自然规律

patron saint 保护神

“happy baby” “喜娃娃”

painted pottery 彩陶

Yangshao Culture 仰韶文化中

Neolithic Age 新石器时代

Banpoof Shaanxi 陕西半坡

totem symbols 图腾符号

primitive society 原始社会

Loess Plateau 黄土高原

“sweeping lady” “扫晴娘”

totem animals 图腾动物

legendaryanimals 神袛动物

unconstraint 古拙随意

exquisite 灵巧纤秀

pouch 荷包

chair-cover 椅搭

disposition 性格、性情

all-inclusive 包罗万象

propagation

繁衍

totem 图腾

immutable 不可抗拒的

ultimate 终极的,最终的

longevity 长寿

perpetuity 永生,不朽

lintel 门楣

depiction描写,描述,描绘

vicious 邪恶的

confine 限制

invisible 无形的

supernatural 超自然的

6.4 Cultural Values of Chinese Paper Cutting

color system in Chinese folk art

中国民间艺术的色彩系统

“two phoenixes playing around a peony” “凤凰戏牡丹”

“phoenixes flyingamong peony blossoms”“凤穿牡丹”

“mandarin ducks playing in water” “鸳鸯戏水”

“a pair of fish with human faces” “人面双鱼”

Li Ji – Yue Ling 《礼记·月令》folk customs民俗

“two dragonsplaying with a ball” “二龙戏珠”

“a golden clockover a frog” “金钟扣蛤蟆”

original Chinese philosophy 中国本原哲学

“a snake twininground a rabbit” “蛇盘兔”

“lion playingwith a silk ball” “狮子滚绣球”

twelve Chinese zodiac animals 十二生肖

funeral and memorial service 丧俗丧祭

“fish playing around lotus” “鱼戏莲”

“lotus bearing seeds” “蓬生子”

“a deer and acrane” “鹿鹤同春”

Indispensable 不可或缺的

embody 呈现,体现

mugwort 艾蒿

eave 屋檐

offering 祭奠品

dispel 驱逐,消除,驱散

archaeology

考古学

humanities

人类学

continuity 连续,延续

preservation 保护

aesthetics 美学

customary传统的

mineral 矿物质的

grief 哀思

Newlywed 新人

broomcorn 角黍

mourning 悼念

parental 父母的

redeem 赎回,挽回

immortality 永生

Deceased 死者

afterlife 来生,来世

dowry

嫁妆

newborn 新生

pestilence 瘟疫

virulent 致命的,剧毒的

adornment 装饰,装饰品

rotating 旋转的

totem door god 图腾门神

daily life appliance 生活用具

vat and jar flower 缸花、瓮花

folkart 民间艺术

porcelain decorations 瓷器装饰

cultural values 文化价值

shoe flower 鞋花

lunar calendar农历

hat decoration 帽饰

summer solstice 夏至

realgar liquor 雄黄酒

rice dumplings 粽子

race dragon boats 赛龙舟

red ornaments 朱符

wear scented pouches 佩戴香包

cattaildragon 蒲龙

Chinese local chronicles 中国地方志

bridalchamber 新房

“double happiness” “红双喜”

mugworttiger 艾虎

a wide-spread popularity 广泛流行

jadeadornment 玉饰

redeem the soul 超度灵魂

social function 社会功能

“passing away” “仙逝”

“return to heaven” “归天”

rites and ceremonies 人生礼仪

culturalideology 文化思想

philosophical viewpoint 哲学观念

perpetual life 生命永生

study of the social sciences社会学

paintedpottery 彩陶

prehistorical time 史前时期

conform to 符合,遵照

prehistorical philosophy

史前哲学

Loess Plateau 黄土高原

view of perpetual life 生生观

cultural code文化符号

the Upper Cave Man 山顶洞人

spiritual eternity灵魂不死

life-threatening 威胁生命的

culturalheritage 文化遗产

摄影师四喜   142.8天前
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